In the perineal area, a urologist may perform a vaginectomy, and lengthen the urethra with mucosa between the minor labiae. Vulvoplasty patients were older and had higher body mass index BMI than those seeking vaginoplasty. Facial feminization surgery. One-stage reconstruction of the penis using an innervated radial forearm osteocutaneous flap. Of all patients 41 It has a shorter recovery time and can become erect on its own.
Trans men with moderate to large breasts usually require a formal bilateral mastectomy with grafting and reconstruction of the nipple-areola. Bigner, Joseph L. An increased donor site morbidity was expected, but the early and late complications did not differ from the rates reported in the literature for the smaller flaps as used in head and neck reconstruction. The authors declare that they have no potential conflicts of interest. The authors concluded that future research needs to investigate long-term effects of pitch-raising surgery using a stronger study design. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. Of these 91 women 22
This technique is useful for correcting skin excess and wrinkling produced by large differences between the inner and outer circles.
Sex reassignment surgery (female-to-male)
Gender-affirming genital surgery consults were reviewed from March until Decemberand patients scheduled for or who had completed vulvoplasty were interviewed by telephone. In total, we received completed questionnaires after a median of 5. Many trans men considering the option do not opt for genital reassignment surgery; [ citation needed ] more frequent surgical options include bilateral mastectomy removal of the breasts and chest contouring providing a more typically male chest shapeand hysterectomy the removal of internal sex organs. Despite the multitude of flaps that have been employed and described often as Case Reportsthe radial forearm is universally considered the gold standard in penile reconstruction. This page was last edited on 7 Mayat Perceptually, mainly laryngeal web formation appeared risky for decreasing voice quality.
Sex reassignment surgery (male-to-female)
Male-to-female MtF gender affirmation surgery GAS comprises the resection of all clearly defining features of male genitalia. The patient, an infantry soldier who identifies as a woman, had already begun a course of treatment for gender reassignment. The major drawback of the radial forearm flap has always been the unattractive donor site scar on the forearm Fig. It can be used both as a free flap 43 and as a pedicled flap 44 then avoiding the problems related to microsurgical free flap transfer. Completely removing and grafting often results in a loss of sensation of that area that may take months to over a year to return, or may never return at all; and in rare cases in the complete loss of this tissue. Eur Urol.